The desire of Friedensreich Hundertwasser, the Austrian-born painter and graphic artist, has been to find a happy medium between rigidity and freedom in art. This reflects similarities with concepts inherent in cellular automata. The rule followed called the stepping stone rule is to choose a number between 0 and 1; this will be the update probability for all cells. For each cell in the array, generate a random number between 0 and 1 at every time step. If the random number generated for the given cell is higher than the update probability, the color of the cell changes to that of one of its neighbors selected uniformly at random. Informally, this rule dictates that cells randomly 'eat' one of their neighbors. One can think of the stepping stone rule as a model for competition between selectively neutral genetic types.

Since, the stepping stone rule is considered and the rule for each cell is well-defined, regions of color of greater and greater area will always form, and one color will always win out in the end. However, the random choice of which color a cell takes on means that the end result--which color will win out--may be different for every trial. Even in the automata with rules that are completely deterministic, different initial conditions and the length of time for which one iterated the rule of the automaton allow for great variety of output;

* 2D CA Art

* Applying repeatedly the stepping stone rule to the scanned image.