EE293, Fall 2011, Section 02: Physics and Chemistry of Crystal Growth

EE293 Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering

Physics and Chemistry of Crystal Growth

 Nobuhiko Kobayashi


Date, Time, and Places:

   Tuesdays/Thursdays, 4:00PM-5:45PM

   BE156 (Santa Cruz) to be telecasted

   Room 130 (UCSC Extension Silicon Valley) to be telecasted


Course Description: For many decades, semiconductor crystals have been the core in applications such as electronics and optoelectronics. New semiconductor crystals with unprecedented physical and chemical properties will continuously allow us to envision a new paradigm in a wide range of technological fields, therefore developing capability of growing new semiconductor crystals that have desirable physical and chemical properties is the key to further advancement. The growth of crystals critically depends on the nature of environment in which crystals grow. Understanding fundamental processes involved in the growth of crystals therefore is very important. In this course, we will discuss several key processes that occur in the growth of crystals to build a coherent picture of how growth conditions impact these processes.


Topics covered in the course:


1. Introduction - Birth and growth of crystals

               1.1 Nucleation of a crystal

               1.2 Interface kinetics

               1.3 Mass and heat transport

               1.4 Morphology and shape of a crystal

2. Statistical mechanics for crystal growth

               2.1 Thermal equilibrium and thermodynamic potential

               2.2 Equilibrium phase diagrams and the driving force for crystal growth

3. Fluctuation and nucleation

               3.1Fluctuation in thermal equilibrium

               3.2 Kinetics of nucleation

               3.3 Heterogeneous nucleation

4. Structures of crystal surfaces and roughening transition

               4.1 Facets, steps, kinks

               4.2 Roughening transition

5. The driving force for crystal growth and crystal shapes

               5.1 Thermodynamic forces on interfaces

               5.2 Equilibrium shape of crystals.

               5.3 Interface free energy and equilibrium shapes

               5.4 Shapes of a growing crystal from an isotropic phase  

6. Mechanisms of crystal growth

               6.1 Characteristics in different mother phases

               6.2 Interface structures and growth mechanisms

7. Models of crystal growth

               7.1 Growth from a vapor phase

               7.2 Growth from a liquid phase

8. Crystal growth in a diffusive environment

               8.1 Instability of crystal growth

               8.2 Needles

               8.3 Fractals

               8.4 Wandering steps

               8.5 Bunching steps